Although born in London, Rice had represented Ireland at four different junior international levels, as well as playing three non-competitive games for the senior side. But he finally pledged his international future to England last month instead.
Rice made his first team debut for West Ham in April 2017 and has played over 60 games for the club since, including 31 in all competitions so far this season in defensive midfield.
Burnley pair Tom Heaton and James Tarkowski have returned to the fold, while Harry Maguire, Danny Rose and Kieran Trippier are all back after being injured for the November internationals. Bournemouth's Callum Wilson has kept his place, but Jesse Lingard misses out through injury.
There were no call-ups for Crystal Palace full-back Aaron Wan-Bissaka or Southampton midfielder James Ward-Prowse, despite rumours there could be.
Full England Squad for Euro 2020 Qualifiers vs Czech Republic & Montenegro:
Goalkeepers: Jack Butland (Stoke), Tom Heaton (Burnley), Jordan Pickford (Everton)
Defenders: Trent Alexander-Arnold (Liverpool), Ben Chilwell (Leicester), Michael Keane (Everton), Harry Maguire (Leicester), Danny Rose (Tottenham), Luke Shaw (Man Utd), John Stones (Man City), James Tarkowski (Burnley), Kieran Trippier (Tottenham), Kyle Walker (Man City)
Midfielders: Dele Alli (Tottenham), Ross Barkley (Chelsea), Fabian Delph (Man City), Eric Dier (Tottenham), Jordan Henderson (Liverpool), Ruben Loftus-Cheek (Chelsea), Declan Rice (West Ham)
Forwards: Harry Kane (Tottenham), Marcus Rashford (Man Utd), Jadon Sancho (Borussia Dortmund), Raheem Sterling (Man City), Callum Wilson (Bournemouth)
England's next set of international fixtures will then be at the inaugural UEFA Nations League Finals in June, when they will face the Netherlands and then either Switzerland or Portugal for the right to lift the trophy - what would be a first for Three Lions since 1966.